Statistical Classification

 

The classification problem is just like the regression problem, except that the values we now want to predict take on only a small number of discrete values.

Binary classification problem

The value we want to predict (y)(y) can take on only two values, 0 and 1. (Most of what we say here will also generalize to the multiple-class case.) For instance, if we are trying to build a spam classifier for email, then x(i)x^{(i)} may be some features of a piece of email, and yy may be 1 if it is a piece of spam mail, and 0 otherwise.

Hence, y{0,1}y \in \{0,1\}. 0 is also called the negative class, and 1 the positive class, and they are sometimes also denoted by the symbols “-” and “+”.

Given x(i)x^{(i)}, the corresponding y(i)y^{(i)} is also called the label for the training example.

To attempt classification, one method is to use linear regression and map all predictions greater than 0.5 as a 1 and all less than 0.5 as a 0. However, this method doesn't work well because classification is not actually a linear function.

19-trying-linear-regression-on-classification-problem

If linear regression doesn't work on a classification task as in the above example, applying feature scaling will not make it work.